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\documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{indentfirst} \usepackage{gensymb} \begin{document} \title{The fundamental forces of nature} \author{} \date{} \maketitle Our best understanding is that all forces are expressions of just four distinct classes of \textit{fundamental forces}, or interactions between particles. \section{The gravitational interaction} Any two particles with masses and , a distance apart, attract each other with forces inversely proportional […]

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\title{The fundamental forces of nature}
\author{}
\date{}
\maketitle

Our best understanding is that all forces are expressions of just four distinct classes of \textit{fundamental forces}, or interactions between particles.

\section{The gravitational interaction}
Any two particles with masses and , a distance apart, attract each other with forces inversely proportional to .

\section{The electromagnetic interaction}
The second familiar class forces, includes electric and magnetic forces. All atoms contain positive and negative electric charge, so atoms and molecules can exert electric forces on one another. Contact forces, including the normal force, friction, and fluid resistance, are the result of electrical interactions between atoms on the surface of an object and atoms in its surroundings. Magnetic forces are actually the result of electric charges in motion.

On the atomic or molecular scale, gravitational forces play no role because electric forces are enormously stronger. The electrical repulsion between two protons is stronger than their gravitational attraction by factor of about .

\\ Show case example in the electric charge chapter
Calculate ration between them

\section{The strong interaction}
This interaction is responsible for holding the nucleus of an atom together. Nuclei contain electrically neutral neutrons and positively charged protons. The electric forces between nuclear particles counteracts this repulsion and makes the nucleus stable. In this context the strong interaction is also called the strong nuclear force. It has much shorter range than electrical interactions, but within its range it is much stronger.

\section{The weak interaction}
Its range is so short that it plays a role only on the scale of nucleus or smaller. The weak force or weak nuclear force is responsible for a common form of radioactivity called \textif{beta decay}, in which a neutron in a radioactive nucleus is transformed into a proton, while ejecting an electron and a nearly massless particle called an antineutrino.

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